By Farid Septian
Social Manager BAZNAS RI
REPUBLIKA.CO.ID--The pilgrimage (hajj) is the fifth pillar of Islam after the creed, prayer, zakat, and fasting which must be carried out at least once in a lifetime by every Muslim who meets the requirements of ability, both financially, physically, and mentally. Hajj is an annual form of ritual carried out by Muslims around the world by visiting and carrying out activities in several places in Saudi Arabia at one time, namely in the month of Dhul-Hijjah, known as the Hajj season. This is different from the pilgrimage (umrah) that can be done at any time.
According to data from the Ministry of Religion referring to the release of the Saudi Arabian Government's, the total number of pilgrims in 2018 from all over the world coming to the Holy Land was 2,371,675 people. A total of 203,351 people came from Indonesia or around 8.57% of the total pilgrims worldwide. Whereas in 2019, Indonesia has a quota of 231 thousand pilgrims, an increase of about 14% from the previous year. The details are 214 thousand regular hajj and 17 thousand special hajj.
The hajj dam payment model
Dam in Arabic means fine. Dam in the form of blood is to slaughter an animal as a ransom (kafarat) for some violations committed when performing the pilgrimage or umrah.
Dam was done for several reasons, among others, First, because the pilgrimage in conjunction with carrying out Umrah (qiran) and performing Umrah first before going on pilgrimage (Tamattu). Second, one of the pilgrimage left behind is like being in Mudzdalifah (one of the areas between Arafah and Mina, where all pilgrims take the opportunity to throw jumroh). Third, do the prohibition of ihram besides intercourse like perfumed. Fifth, committing violations in illegal land such as hunting (Sabiq I / 738)
The majority of Indonesian pilgrims perform Tamattu Hajj, a series of Hajj that prioritizes the Umrah before performing the Hajj. So, after carrying out the obligatory Umrah, pilgrims are obliged to pay dam, in the form of slaughtering livestock at least one goat.
In general there are three models for paying dams that have been running so far. First, pilgrims can pay dams through the official Ar Rajhi Bank outlet in collaboration with the Islamic Development Bank which recommended by the Saudi Arabian government. The price of a goat is around 475 reals or around Rp. 1.9 million (exchange rate Rp. 4,000). Second, the pilgrims buy their livestock directly to the animal market. Usually the pilgrims will get cheaper goat prices, but it requires time and accuracy in choosing good livestock. Third, entrust dams payments to the head of the hajj group or Indonesian people who live in Mecca (mukimin) to buy livestock which is then distributed to the poor in the local area.
The three dam payment models above are potentially not well targeted the most needed people in terms of meat distribution because it is done in a narrow window of time, in a very large quantities, and is concentrated in Saudi area. Meanwhile in other parts of the world there are still many Muslim communities who barely eat meat, including Indonesia.
The difference in the method of payment of dam is because indeed the slaughtering of animals for each person for a violation is not determined by the model of its implementation. But it is not wrong if the implementation can be organized by the government. For example, every person who commits an offense, submits the price of a goat to an agency appointed by the government which will distribute the meat to those in the country of origin who need it most
If 80% of the total 231 thousand Indonesian pilgrims who performed the Tamattu Hajj, the minimum amount of dam that could be collected was 184,800 goats or equivalent to Rp. 369 billion (assuming a goat is Rp. 2 million) or Rp. 462 billion (assuming a goat is Rp. 2.5 million). This amount is certainly very large when compared with, for example, the achievement of fundraising of zakat and alms funds collected by large zakat institutions in this country, ranging from Rp. 200 to Rp. 300 billion per year.
Malnutrition and potential dam
Based on the 2018 basic health research (Riskesdas) released by the Ministry of Health, Indonesia is still faced with the problem of stunting. Stunting is a chronic malnutrition problem which is marked by the child's height is lower than the standard age. This condition is caused by lack of nutritional intake in a long time as a result of feeding that is not in accordance with nutritional needs, especially in the golden period of the first thousand days of life.
In 2018 around 30.8% of children under five in Indonesia were stunted. Although decreased from the results of basic health research in 2013 which reached 37.2%, but this figure is still far above the maximum limit of 20% set by WHO. This is an emergency. With such a large number of sufferers, Indonesia is only slightly better than Laos and Timor Leste who are experienced stunting problems in the Southeast Asian region.
According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data released in 2018, meat consumption in Indonesian people in 2017 only reached an average of 1.8 kg for beef, 7 kg of chicken meat, 2.3 kg of pork, and 0.4 kg of mutton.
If this amount is compared to other ASEAN countries, Indonesia is far left behind. Referring to OECD data in the same period, neighboring countries such as Malaysia have a consumption level of 4.8 kg of beef, 46 kg of chicken meat, 2.6 pork, and 1 kg of goat meat. While the Philippines reached 3.1 kg of beef, 12.6 kg of chicken, 15.4 kg of pork and 0.5 kg of goat meat. Thailand has 1.7 kg of beef, 14.5 chicken and 10.4 pork, while Vietnam has 9.9 kg of beef, 13 kg of chicken, 30.4 kg of pork and 1.7 kg of mutton.
Of course with the low level of meat consumption also affects the low level of animal protein intake in Indonesian society, especially in the lower middle economic class.
Under this circumstances, it needs immediately solution, otherwise there will be a loss generation due to lack of protein. Lack of protein, especially animal protein, can result in slow body growth and also the level of intelligence of children. Therefore, we must increase people's consumption of animal protein. One of them is through the adequacy of the level of meat consumption with all the nutritional and nutritional value it contains.
From the explanation above, we’ve seen the reality of the problem lack of nutrition in Indonesia. While on the other hand we also know the potential use of dams which is not yet optimal. Therefore, we need to encourage the government to realize the policy of distributing Hajj meat in order to improve the nutrition of the Indonesian people, especially in areas with high levels of malnutrition.
Efforts to utilize the meat of the Hajj dam also form part of the implementation of the SDG's. Specifically goal number 2, zero hunger. The implementation of SDGs emphasizes the principle of no one left behind specifically gives special attention to vulnerable or poor communities.
The ministry of religion can work with BAZNAS to make a breakthrough on the use of dams that has more multi-impact for the wider community.
At least some steps is needed in various sectors so that this can be realized. First, strengthening diplomacy and cooperation with the Saudi government for the distribution of dam animal meat in the country. Second, strengthening fatwa’s and regulations on the distribution of dam animal meat to Indonesia. Third, strengthening meat packaging innovation in the form of packaging to facilitate equitable distribution throughout the country. Fourth, strengthening management and standardizing the whole process to maintain the quality control of the meat will be distributed.